4 types of pumps that you can use on your farm
Farm operations such as irrigation are essential aspects of farming. You need to deliver water to the plants at the right place and time. Agricultural pumps are effective machinery required for running your farm operations. You need an efficient water pump that meets your requirements and enhances your water distribution system to streamline your irrigation operations. Some can be operated using diesel and petrol while others use electricity.
What factors should you consider before buying a pump?
Here are various factors that determine the type of pump that you should choose:
- Size of the field
- Power sources
- Water sources
- Water pressure required
- Engine and fuel consumption
- Displacement and speed of the pump
- Distance and elevation from the water source
- Type of irrigation system that you will be using
When buying a pump, you need something that can operate in streams, ponds, ditches, and canals without priming or suction lines. It should be able to filter out any materials that may clog the nozzles and sprinklers feeding the pivot systems. Besides, it should be easy to use, long-lasting, corrosion-free, and portable.
Where are pumps used?
Farming pumps have a wide range of uses, such as:
- Running irrigation systems
- Watering the plants and pumping water for domestic, livestock use, and irrigation
- Dairy and waste management
- Tail-water reuse
- Dredging water intakes for aquaculture and irrigation
- Cleaning sediment and sludge in lagoons and ponds
- Running fish farms
- Transferring large volumes of water from rivers, dams, canals, and ponds
Types of Agricultural pumps
Here are four agricultural water pumps used for farming.
- Displacement pumps
- Centrifugal pumps
This is a pump that is a turbine pump coupled to a water-tight electric motor. It eliminates the bearing retainers and long drive shaft required for a deep-well turbine pump. It has a propeller at the bottom that plays a vital role in pushing the water. They are used for moving large volumes of water with low energy input requirements. Submersible pumps have high efficiency, are easy to install and maintain, and are cost-effective.
Types of Submersible Pumps
There are three types of submersible pumps: vertical, horizontal (or CW), and mixed-Flow.
Vertical Submerged Pumps (VSPs): These pumps have a single shaft submerged in the water column beneath the plant. The motor is located outside of the pump housing and propeller shaft. It is a major design constraint in VSPs. The water lift can be small, and its capacity may not be adequate for the load it experiences.
Horizontal Submerged Pumps (HSPs): These pumps have two shafts, one submerged beneath the other. The impellers are oriented so that water flows from left to right around them. These are pumps where both shaft and pump housing float above ground level within that installation plan. They provide better accuracy than vertical submersible pumps because avoiding hydraulic losses during operation is more difficult, making them inefficient at high flow rates due to the loss of power and energy.
Mixed-Flow Submersible Pumps (MSPs): This pump combines a VSP and HSP configuration in a single pump body. The impellers are submerged, but the motor and propeller shaft is located at the pump body’s top. The flow towards the motor will be higher than through both impellers, and water flows into a chamber that surrounds it to distribute each pump’s weight more equally over its working surface. Moving up from this chamber, there is an upper level where working material passes through a small orifice before passing on to another compartment below. If this cavity were filled with water, the job would not work correctly. This design addresses issues associated with mixing by altering the size of each pump and its ability to circulate water within it.
Advantages of submersible pumps
The following are some of the advantages that submersible pumps offer:
- Submerged impellers allow for smaller, more efficient pump bodies.
- Pumps can be placed in difficult-to-access areas.
- Maintaining a constant speed is easier with an underwater motor than with a terrestrial one. This is especially true when operating below ground level, where losses in power and energy are more significant. -There is less risk of hydraulic shock and failure.
- Pumps can be installed in marshes, estuaries, and other aquatic environments where vertical pumps are unsuitable.
- They are easy to install and maintain
- They are cost-effective
Specially designed submersible booster pumps can be mounted horizontally in pipelines. They can also work perfectly as a booster in the pump’s suction line, where water levels fluctuate.
These are pumps that use propellers to move water to a specific location. They are highly efficient in areas that require high pressure and low volume. However, they can also be used to move large volumes of water at higher velocities due to their screw plate designs.
Types of propeller pumps
There are two main types of propeller pumps which are:
- Axial propeller pumps are powered by the rotation of a propeller shaft attached to the pump’s motor. These pumps are commonly used in water distribution applications and can move large volumes of water at high rates.
- Mixed flow propeller pumps are designed to handle a range of water pressures efficiently and are ideal for applications requiring high pressure and low volume. They offer a high capacity and can effectively attain the flow rate required for pumping water to a certain distance.
Advantages of propeller pumps
They offer lower noise levels than other types of pumps.
- Propellers can be used in areas where vertical pumps are not suitable because they take up less space.
- They are easy to install and maintain.
- They offer high-efficiency ratings when compared to other types of pumps.
Propeller pumps can be mounted horizontally on trailers for agricultural applications to push water into pipelines easily. They can be backed into a water source and can be used to pump out waste storage lagoons on most farms.
Since the pump is operated at a proper submergence depth and the impeller must be submerged, propeller pumps cannot be used for suction lift. As the diameter of the pump increases, the depth of submergence also increases to prevent sucking air.
Positive displacement water pumps
Positive displacement water pumps are similar to propeller pumps, but they use preloaded blades that reciprocate just below the surface of a fluid. This motion expels the fluid through an impeller and creates a flow of water that can be used for various purposes such as irrigation, filtration, etc. They use a combination of pistons, valves, and chambers to reduce the pressure on the inlet side, which draws water into the pump. The pressure is then increased, forcing the water through the outlet side.
Since the blades are below the surface, they cannot be submerged and must operate at a shallow depth. They transfer pressure from an intake pipe and a discharge pump. In agriculture, Positive displacement pumps can be used with sprinkler heads to water crops automatically.
Types of positive displacement pumps
There are three types of positive displacement pumps: rotary pumps, reciprocating pumps, and linear pumps.
Rotary pumps are most commonly used for irrigation. They are rotary pumps that move water by rotating instead of displacement or by pumping like a piston pump. They push water across the land, making them ideal for irrigation at high pressures and flows. They give you more precise control over how much water is applied per unit area without worrying about clogging up your pipes.
Reciprocating pumps are also rotary pumps, but the blades on one side of the pump rotate in the opposite direction as those on the other side. Instead of pushing water out, they pull it through and make them great for applications such as filtration, where you need to remove large amounts of particles from a fluid at high speed without damaging them.
Linear pumps are essentially piston pumps turned sideways, making them perfect when space is tight or if you need to apply high pressures and flows in tight spaces.
Outlets for positive displacement pumps
Positive displacement pumps come with several outlets, including drop-out, cone-type, and diffuser heads. Drop-out outlets allow you to direct the pump output exactly where you need it without worrying about directing the water flow. Cone-type heads give a more directed spray, while diffuser heads disperse the spray evenly over an area.
Advantages of positive displacement pumps in agriculture
- These pumps have several advantages, which include:
- They are efficient and can move large volumes of water at high pressures
- They are durable and more suitable for applications where reliability is important
- They are less likely to clog due to their larger size and the lack of recirculation.
- They are available in various types, making them suitable for various applications.
- They are quieter compared to other pumps.
These use centrifugal force to create a continuous motion, which can be used for motors and bearings. They have an impeller that rotates and draws the fluid inside the pump. The pump is immersed in water, and its rotation transfers the kinetic energy to the fluid from the motor. The fluid then moves through the pump to the pipes at a high velocity. They are powered using electrical energy, from either fuel, solar, wind, or hydropower.
Types of centrifugal pumps
- Submersible pumps
- Turbine pumps
- End-suction centrifugal pumps: They are connected with a rotating motor and can be used to pump water from a water source below 4 feet at high efficiency.
- Jet pumps: The pumps can lift water from a water source that is extremely low from the level of the pump. They are the best option for pumping water from deep water sources.
- Floating pumps: This is a pump that is connected to a floating object. They effectively pump water from a pond, dam, or lake.
Why buy from Mazero?
Water pumps have one basic function: transfer water from point “A” to point “B” through pipes. A first-use pump is designed for the first time and will require priming before being used, while it may run slowly at first after starting up.
At Mazero, it is our joy to see you streamline your water supply. We offer durable, efficient, and easy-to-use pumps to enhance your farm operations. Our pumps can be easily integrated with fertigation systems and efficiently deliver fluids with high and low viscosity. They consume less power and come at affordable prices. Contact us today!